Three groups of blueberries Vaccinium ssp. (Ericaceae) are important for commercial cultivation, all needing a very acid soil for cultivation. One or other produces fresh fruit throughout the summer into autumn. The first and now most important is the highbush, developed from Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium australe, two highly variable species, native to eastern North America. Both are deciduous shrubs growing to 12ft high, although the highbush blueberry in cultivation is maintained at about 3-5ft. The second is the rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, with slightly smaller fruits, deciduous and growing wild in southern parts of the US to 30ft. Low bush blueberries, Vaccinium myrtilloides and Vaccinium angustifolium, are also native to the eastern US, growing to 6-18in. tall, with the smallest fruits and spreading by underground shoots. Blueberries were collected from the wild for many years before being cultivated commercially: even today lowbush blueberries are chiefly picked from managed wild populations, accounting for two-thirds of the blueberry land in North America.
Lowbush blueberries were the first to be cultivated (or managed) in the 19th century; they are now seldom grown. Rabbiteye blueberries were commonly cultivated in Florida at the end of that century, and there were also some commercial plantations of highbush blueberries in the northern states at about that time; rabbiteye blueberries are much more productive, being both heat and drought-resistant when these conditions prevail. The real stimulus to highbush growing came early in the 20th century when a breeding programme was started by the US Department of Agriculture, under Dr. Frederick Coville. Based on interspecific hybridisation, the first cultivars were introduced in the 1920’s, and a second group was introduced in the 1960’s. These form the basis of the successful industry of today. The largest area of cultivation is North America, where highbush blueberries account for more than two-thirds of production. Highbush blueberries have also been grown successfully in Europe, Israel and Japan, and more recently in Australia and New Zealand for marketing out of the northern season. The main breeding programme is being undertaken in North America, to produce cultivars with more resistance to diseases and to winter injury, for mechanical harvesting, and with a longer fruiting season. New cultivars have also been introduced in Germany and in Australia, selected for local conditions. New low-growing, very hardy cultivars (‘half-high’) have been bred in Minnesota, so extending the area of cultivation into regions where they will survive temperatures of -34ºC or lower under snow cover. Recently, tetraploid cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry have been introduced; this species is more tolerant of heat and drought than the other types, and also has a lower chill requirement, so can be grown in the southern states.
Most of the fruit goes to the fresh market, but there is also a quantity used for processing. Blueberries produce scented flowers in spring and most cultivars show highly coloured foliage before leaf-fall, an extra advantage in the garden.
Highbush blueberries have a minimum cold requirement of 800 hours below 7.2ºC, which limits potential cultivation to climates with cold winters. Rabbiteye blueberries need less than half of this, depending on the cultivar, so can be grown in warmer climates (e.g. Florida). Lowbush blueberries are, in general, the hardiest and rabbiteye the least hardy. In the highbush blueberry, susceptibility to low temperature injury varies with the cultivar and degree of hardening, being most resistant a month after mid-winter (January) and less so towards spring. The more developed the flowers, the more vulnerable they are to frost.
Sites for blueberries need good air circulation to allow frosty air to drain away easily, but shelter from strong winds is also required. Good light is essential, as flower buds initiation and wood ripening are better with high light intensity. Well aerated, well drained, acid soils, high in organic matter (11.5%) are ideal for blueberries; sandy-loamy soils are used for commercial crops. Optimum soil pH is 4.3-4.8, but 4.0-5.5 is tolerable.
Highbush blueberries are self-fertile and a single cultivar will fruit if grown on its own, although growing two cultivars will improve yields. A relatively high fruit set (80%) is needed to give a good commercial crop, so bee colonies are commonly introduced at flowering. Bumble bees are the best pollinators. Lowbush blueberries usually set fewer fruits and introduced bees are essential at flowering. Rabbiteye blueberries are self-fertile and must be interplanted with another cultivar.
Bushes of two or three years old are planted (certified ‘disease free’ stock is available in North America). In the UK, three-year-olds are preferred as there may be a high loss among two-year-old plants. Plant after leaf-fall in autumn or early winter to allow them to become established before winter; in very cold climates, early spring planting is more usual. Spacing in gardens for highbush blueberries is 1.5m each way; commercially highbush blueberries are grown 1.2-1.5m apart between the rows. Rabbiteye blueberries are planted at 1.5-1.8m. Lowbush blueberries are grown as groundcover.
It is advisable to test the soil pH regularly, as signs of nutrient deficiencies will soon appear on soil that has become too alkaline. Highbush blueberries respond to nitrogen feeding, depending on soil type, but in gardens good results have been obtained by applying a base fertiliser (2:2:1 superphosphate/hoof and horn/sulphate of potash) at 15g/m² in early spring, followed by sulphate of ammonia at 15g/m² a month later. Some commercial growers apply a complete fertiliser, others give sulphate of ammonia or urea: rates of nitrogen recommended are 35-140kg/ha, according to local conditions.
Blueberries are surface rooting, so any cultivation must be shallow. Mulching is generally recommended for blueberries in gardens and helps to maintain the high content of organic matter in the soil, as well as conserving soil moisture. Granulated bark or composted softwood sawdust are among the most suitable materials, applied initially as a thick layer (10-15cm) and renewed annually to a depth of 2.5cm. Mulching and clean cultivation, with or without a grass strip between the rows, are common commercial soil-management practices.
Highbush blueberries need about 2.5cm of rain per week during the growing season, more when fruits are developing. Both trickle and overhead irrigation are used commercially to make up any shortfall. Lime-free water (rainwater) must be used. Rabbiteye is more tolerant of dry conditions than the highbush. Regular mulching will help to control weed growth in gardens; herbicides are widely used for weed control in the US, although their use is complicated by the need to maintain a high soil content of organic matter.
Pruning is light in the first 2-3 years after planting, only removing broken or damaged shoots and also any flower buds that may form. The best fruiting wood is on two-year-old and three-year-old shoots, so pruning is aimed at encouraging a good supply of young shoots. Highbush blueberries are grown as stooled bushes with several shoots arising from soil level and, once annual pruning is started, from the third or fourth year, about one in four of these shoots is cut out completely. New shoots are produced from the basal buds remaining. Lowbush blueberries are not pruned by cutting, but are burnt over at intervals to rejuvenate the plants; this is usually done every two or three years when the soil is flooded or frozen. Rabbiteye blueberries need little pruning to stimulate growth but it is used to keep bushes at a height just below 3m. Fruit on bushes taller than this is difficult to harvest by machine. Late summer pruning to remove shoots above 90cm completely or to 5cm has not reduced subsequent yields.
Fruits of highbush blueberry are blue/black, about 2cm in diameter, covered with a white bloom. They are not fully ripe until a week after they have turned blue, and therefore need selective harvesting. When picked by hand, fruits are rolled between thumb and forefinger to separate them from the stem. The first-ripened fruits are largest, and the commercial crop from the first two pickings is sent to the fresh market. Over-the-row machines may be used for the subsequent picks, and these fruits are likely to be sent for processing, for which quality is less important; losses of up to 30% fruit are frequent with mechanical harvesting, which is also likely to cause damage to the bushes. In the garden, the problem of birds eating the ripening fruits is considerable and the only satisfactory control is to net the bushes before the fruits start to ripen. Fruits of lowbush blueberries usually go for processing; they are raked off the plants with a handheld tool or by machine.
Highbush blueberries are usually increased by softwood cuttings. Lateral shoots 10cm long plus heel are taken from one-year-old shoots are midsummer. All leaves except the top two or three are removed and the cuttings inserted in a firm, sandy mixture, at 20ºC. Cuttings should root in about four weeks. Rabbiteye blueberries are also usually propagated by softwood cuttings but hardwood cuttings are sometimes used. Hardwood cuttings are also used for highbush blueberries; particularly in North America, and it is known that shoots thicker than 5mm root better than thinner shoots. Shoots of 10-15cm long are taken from dormant bushes; they may be taken in early winter and stored in polythene bags at -1ºC to +1ºC for four months to avoid any risk of winter damage in the fields. Tissue culture has also been used for highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, but both types are slow to proliferate and the technique is not economic on a large scale. Lowbush blueberries are usually propagated by rhizome cuttings.
In gardens with a spoil pH that is too high for highbush blueberries, plants can be grown in wide-diameter containers of at least 60cm deep or, on a larger scale, in specially made beds lined with heavy grade polythene sheeting. The ideal planting mixture is acidic and sandy with a light organic content; water with rainwater. Plants in these conditions will need fertiliser, in the form of nitrogen, from the start of growth in spring, plus a high potash feed given every ten days from the start of flowering until fruits start to ripen. Other cultural techniques are the same. ‘Bluetta’ is a good cultivar for open garden and container growing.
The following cultivars are recommended. Seasons cited are for North America; they will be later in northern Europe. Highbush. Early: ‘Bluetta’, ‘Collins’, ‘Earliblue’, ‘Patriot’, ‘Sharpblue’, (for warmer regions). Early/midseason: ‘North Country’, ‘North Sky’, ‘Northblue’, ‘Northland’ (all very cold-resistant). Midseason: ‘Berkeley’, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Bluejay’, ‘Blueray’, ‘Herbert’, ‘Ivanhoe’. Late: ‘Coville’, ‘Elliot’, ‘Jersey’. Lowbush: ‘Putte’. Rabbiteye. Early/midseason: ‘Brightwell’, ‘Premier’, ‘Tifblue’, ‘Woodard’. Midseason: ‘Briteblue’, ‘Climax’, ‘Delite’.
Other tasty berries you might like to try and cultivate are Bilberries, Blaeberries, Huckleberries, Whinberries and Whortleberries. Since they are of the same genus as Blueberries (Vaccinium) they are also featured on this website, in the section about Cranberries.
Go to Top If you like this website and want one of your own contact
Cyberian All information correct at
time of publication and open to updates as necessary. No part of this website,
or its vectors, may be produced in any shape or form, using any type or design
of medium, system, equipment or otherwise without the prior written consensual
notice of the Cyberian. Any breach of these requirements will result in the
appropriate action. If in doubt, e-mail contact is recommended.
Some components of this website were obtained as open-source software and are
used in the same non-profit manner on this website.
Go to Top
If you like this website and want one of your own contact Cyberian
All information correct at time of publication and open to updates as necessary. No part of this website, or its vectors, may be produced in any shape or form, using any type or design of medium, system, equipment or otherwise without the prior written consensual notice of the Cyberian. Any breach of these requirements will result in the appropriate action. If in doubt, e-mail contact is recommended. Some components of this website were obtained as open-source software and are used in the same non-profit manner on this website.
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢⼊伯湷牥光瘊牡张潟煩灟瑣㴠㔠㬰椊⡦张潟煩灟瑣㴾〱‰籼䴠瑡汦潯⡲慍桴爮湡潤⡭⨩〱⼰ㄨ〰弭潟煩灟瑣⤩㸠〠⤠笠瘊牡张楯煱㴠张楯煱簠⁼嵛潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧牂湡❤✬祌潣❳⥝潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧慃❴✬湉整湲瑥㸠圠扥楳整❳⥝潟煩異桳嬨漧煩慟摤慐敧楌敦祣汣❥✬湉整摮崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影潤慔❧⥝昨湵瑣潩⡮ 慶楯ⁱ‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※楯祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※楯獡湹‽牴敵楯牳‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯⬠✠⼯硰漮湷牥煩渮瑥猯慴⽳⽳祬潣湳樮❳慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥楯ⱱ猠㬩紊⠩㬩紊⼊䜯潯汧湁污瑹捩ੳ慶束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹ㄭ✹⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ琧楲潰潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ㄬ✬敭扭牥湟浡❥✬牧睯牦極❴㌬⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠瘊牡朠‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠獡湹‽牴敵慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩潣⽭慧樮❳慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧⥳⥽⤨⼯祌潣湉瑩昊湵瑣潩敧剴晥牥敲⡲ 慶污㵬琠楨潤畣敭瑮挮潯楫㭥椊愨汬㴽✠⤧爠瑥牵慦獬㭥瘊牡挠潯楫彥慮敭㴠✠䕒䕆剒剅✽慶瑳牡⁴‽污慬瑳湉敤佸⡦潣歯敩湟浡⥥晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲⬠‽潣歯敩湟浡敬杮桴慶湥‽污湩敤佸⡦㬧Ⱗ猠慴瑲㬩椊攨摮㴠‽ㄭ 湥‽污敬杮桴敲畴湲愠汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤畦据楴湯朠瑥畑牥⡹ 慶晲‽敧剴晥牥敲⡲㬩椊爨牦㴠‽✧ 敲畴湲映污敳慶ⁱ‽硥牴捡兴敵祲爨牦礧桡潯挮浯Ⱗ✠㵰⤧晩⠠⥱爠瑥牵㭱焊㴠攠瑸慲瑣畑牥⡹晲Ⱳ✠Ⱗ✠㵱⤧敲畴湲焠㼠焠㨠∠㬢紊昊湵瑣潩硥牴捡兴敵祲昨汵ⱬ猠瑩ⱥ焠灟牡浡 慶瑳牡⁴‽畦汬氮獡䥴摮硥晏猨瑩⥥晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲㴠映汵慬瑳湉敤佸⡦影慰慲⥭晩⠠瑳牡⁴㴽ⴠ⤱爠瑥牵慦獬㭥猊慴瑲⬠‽影慰慲敬杮桴慶湥‽畦汬椮摮硥晏✨✦瑳牡⥴晩⠠湥㴽ⴠ⤱攠摮㴠映汵敬杮桴敲畴湲甠敮捳灡⡥畦汬献扵瑳楲杮猨慴瑲湥⥤⸩灳楬⡴•⤢樮楯⡮⬢⤢畦据楴湯朠湥牥瑡䡥敲⡦瑡条整灭慬整笩愊慴牨晥琽浥汰瑡敲汰捡⡥弧奍剕彌Ⱗ眠湩潤潬慣楴湯栮敲敲汰捡⡥栧瑴㩰⼯Ⱗ✠⤧⸩敲汰捡⡥弧奍䥔䱔彅Ⱗ䌧敨正㈥漰瑵㈥琰楨╳〲牔灩摯㈥䴰浥敢╲〲楳整✡㬩ਠ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥慶浣牟汯‽氢癩≥慶浣桟獯⁴‽琢楲潰祬潣潣≭慶浣瑟硡摩㴠∠洯浥敢敲扭摥敤≤慶牴灩摯浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠牧睯牦極≴慶牴灩摯浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠牧睯牦極⽴汢敵敢牲敩瑨≭慶牴灩摯牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢ㈵㜴ㄶㄵ㨵扡ㅢ慢ㅡ戱愸㝡〸㍦㍦摦㍦摣搸ㄶ搹㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽畮汬瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㔢⸴㘱⸱㔴ㄮ㘵㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥㴠∠睷牴灩摯氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤牴捡彫浳污‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯獟慭汬牦浡楧㽦慲摮㐽㔱㤶∹慶祬潣彳摡瑟慲正獟牥敶‽栢瑴㩰⼯敭扭牥牴灩摯挮浯愯浤椯杭振浯潭⽮瑯慟獤牥敶楧㽦慲摮㐽㔱㤶∹慶祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠朠瑥畑牥⡹㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺猯牣灩獴氮捹獯挮浯振瑡慭⽮湩瑩樮≳㰾猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ瘠牡朠潯汧瑥条㴠朠潯汧瑥条簠⁼絻朠潯汧瑥条挮摭㴠朠潯汧瑥条挮摭簠⁼嵛⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †慶慧獤㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †慧獤愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †慧獤琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †慶獵卥䱓㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣㭬 †慧獤献捲㴠⠠獵卥䱓㼠✠瑨灴㩳‧›栧瑴㩰⤧⬠ ††⼧眯睷朮潯汧瑥条敳癲捩獥挮浯琯条樯⽳灧獪㬧 †慶潮敤㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †潮敤瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲木摡ⱳ渠摯⥥素⠩㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉〳堰㔲弰晤❰㍛〰㔲崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✰⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹启䥒慟潢敶㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰㝛㠲〹ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㐰㔱ㄹ㘲ㄭ⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶剔彉敢潬彷㈷砸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲ㄴ㤵㈱ⴶ✲⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⸩湥扡敬楓杮敬敒畱獥⡴㬩 †潧杯敬慴湥扡敬敓癲捩獥⤨素㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢ਠ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笊 †椠⡦℠獩⁖††††††敲畴湲††††慶摡杍‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩 †瘠牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨††慶汳瑯‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤氢慥敤扲慯摲∲琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯昢潯整㉲Ⱒ∠汳摩牥崢††慶摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩 †椠琨楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹††⁽ †攠獬晩愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素 †ਠ††潦瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳ †笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳††††晩⠠摡杍獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩ †††笠 †††††琠楨祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴†††††† †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠ਊ慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰椊琨灯㴠‽敳晬††敲畴湲琠畲㭥紊椊琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笊 †眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴紊爊瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笊 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬††ਊ †ਠ††⼯䐠䵏䤠橮䄠††昨湵瑣潩⡮獩牔汥楬⥸ †笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧ਊ †††瘠牡椠䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡‽畦据楴湯 牨晥⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡戠潬正摥潄慭湩‽ਜ਼††††††††愢慮祮灡牯ㅮ〳〰琮楲潰潣≭ਬ††††††††砢硸潰湲硸牴灩摯挮浯ਢ††††††㭝 †††††瘠牡映慬‽慦獬㭥 †††††ਠ††††††潦⡲瘠牡椠〽※㱩汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫⤠ †††††笠 †††††††椠⡦栠敲敳牡档 汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮⁛⁝ 㴾〠⤠ †††††††笠 †††††††††映慬‽牴敵††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映慬㭧 †††素ਊ††††慶敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮㴠映湵瑣潩⡮洠瑥乡浡††††††††††慶敭慴‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥洧瑥❡㬩 †††††映牯⠠㵩㬰椠洼瑥獡氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††⁻ †††††††椠⡦洠瑥獡楛敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨慮敭⤢㴠‽敭慴慎敭⤠ †††††††笠ਠ††††††††††敲畴湲洠瑥獡楛敧䅴瑴楲畢整∨潣瑮湥≴㬩ਠ††††††††⁽ †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††素 †††ਠ††††慶敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤‽畦据楴湯爨来硥慐瑴牥⥮ †††笠 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥㴠笠㭽 †††††瘠牡渠摯獥⁁‽嵛††††††慶牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳㴠嬠愧Ⱗ✠❣戧崧†††† †††††⠠畦据楴湯朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳Ɱ瀠瑡整湲††††††††††††††晩⠠慨䍳楨摬潎敤⡳⤩ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠渨琮条慎敭㴠㴽✠䙉䅒䕍⤧ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††爠瑥牵慦獬㭥 †††††††††素 †††††††††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠渠挮楨摬潎敤敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††椠⠨档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽㠠 ☦⠠慰瑴牥整瑳渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵⤩††††††††††††††††††††††††††慶牡慥慎敭㴠瀠瑡整湲攮數⡣档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥ㅛ㭝 †††††††††††††渠摯獥慛敲乡浡嵥㴠渠††††††††††††††††††††††††汥敳椠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤱ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††朠瑥潎敤味慨䡴癡䍥浯敭瑮⡳档汩乤摯獥楛ⱝ瀠瑡整湲㬩 †††††††††††素 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素搨捯浵湥潢祤敲敧偸瑡整湲⤩ †††††映牯⠠慶湩瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⥴ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⥝ †††††††笠 †††††††††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤⤠ †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳渨摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯⥥††††††††††††††††††††汥敳 †††††††††笠 †††††††††††渠摯獥⹁異桳 潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝⤠††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲渠摯獥㭁 †††素 †††ਠ†††† †††瘠牡瀠潲数乲摯‽畮汬††††慶牡慥潎敤‽敧䍴浯敭瑮潎敤⡳渠睥删来硅⡰✠慞敲祔数∽牡慥⡟屜⭷∩‧ 㬩ਊ††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼牡慥潎敤敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††笠 †††††瘠牡愠㴠瀠牡敳湉⡴敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬愨敲乡摯獥楛⥝眮摩桴㬩 †††††椠⠨㴾㌠〰 ☦⠠㴼㐠〰⤩ †††††笠 †††††††瀠潲数乲摯‽牡慥潎敤孳嵩††††††††牢慥㭫 †††††素 †††素ਊ †††瘠牡瀠潲数瑲乹浡‽敧䵴瑥䍡湯整瑮∨牰灯牥祴⤢簠⁼慦獬㭥 †††椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…瀨潲数乲摯⥥⤠ †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††††瀠潲数乲摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨牰灯牥潎敤昮物瑳桃汩⥤††††††††汥敳椠⡦椠味敲汬硩☠…⠡瀠潲数乲摯 ⼯匠慬⁰桴摡攠敶瑮潨杵瑨琠敨敲椠潮愠潬慣整汳瑯 †††笠 †††††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 㬩 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††††汥敳椠⡦℠獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩 潬慣楴湯栮敲 ††††††††††慶湩䙪㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††††湩䙪献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††††湩䙪献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††††湩䙪献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††††湩䙪献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧ਊ††††††晩 ☦⠠℠獩牔汥楬⁸籼⠠琠灹潥獩牔汥楬⁸㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤⤠⤠⤠⼠ 汁瑯敨牴灩摯瀠潲獰 †††††笠 †††††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠橮⁆㬩 †††††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††⁽ †††素 素 潤畣敭瑮椮味敲汬硩⤠㬩紊ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊楤⁶摩∽扴损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤䐣䑆䍃㭆戠牯敤潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㤹椡灭牯慴瑮㸢㰊ⴡ昭牯慮敭∽敳牡档•湯畓浢瑩∽敲畴湲猠慥捲楨⡴∩椠㵤栧慥敤彲敳牡档‧ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥琢硥≴瀠慬散潨摬牥∽敓牡档•楳敺㌽‰慮敭∽敳牡档∲瘠污敵∽㸢㰊湩異⁴祴数∽畢瑴湯•慶畬㵥䜢Ⅿ•湯汃捩㵫猢慥捲楨⡴∩ਾ⼼潦浲ਾ猼祴敬ਾ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档笠 †眠摩桴›ㄹ瀶㭸 †洠牡楧㩮〠愠瑵瀸㭸 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮爠汥瑡癩㭥紊ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異⁴††敨杩瑨›〴硰††潦瑮猭穩㩥ㄠ瀴㭸 †氠湩ⵥ敨杩瑨›〴硰††慰摤湩㩧〠㠠硰††潢楳楺杮›潢摲牥戭硯††慢正牧畯摮›䘣䘴䔲㬹 †戠牯敤㩲ㄠ硰猠汯摩⌠䉂㡂㡂††牴湡楳楴湯›慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡ⵥ畯ⱴ †††††††挠汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡㭥紊ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴⁝††楷瑤㩨ㄠ〰㬥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵笠 †戠牯敤潣潬㩲⌠㉁い㐵††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›昣晦††潢桳摡睯›‰瀰⁸㈱硰ⴠ瀴⁸䄣䐲㔰㬴紊ਊਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戢瑵潴≮⁝††潰楳楴湯›扡潳畬整††潴㩰ㄠ硰††楲桧㩴ㄠ硰††灯捡瑩㩹ㄠ††慢正牧畯摮›䐣䑆䍃㭆 †挠汯牯›㐣㌶㌷㬴 †眠摩桴›㈱瀵㭸 †挠牵潳㩲瀠楯瑮牥††敨杩瑨›㠳硰††潢摲牥›潮敮潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥ਬ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›䄣䌵㕅㬶 †挠汯牯›昣晦潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㈵䕁䙄††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊ਊ⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ猼牣灩㹴昊湵瑣潩敳牡档瑩⤨†† †⼠ 敤整浲湩湥楶潲浮湥⁴ †瘠牡猠慥捲彨湥⁶ †椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨瀮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸱摰氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††⁽汥敳椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨焮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸱慱氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††⁽汥敳笠 †††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸱祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素ਊ慶敳牡档瑟牥‽湥潣敤剕䍉浯潰敮瑮搨捯浵湥敳牡档献慥捲㉨瘮污敵慶敳牡档畟汲㴠猠慥捲彨湥⭶敳牡档瑟牥㭭眊湩潤灯湥猨慥捲彨牵⥬爊瑥牵慦獬⼼捳楲瑰ⴭਾ猼祴敬ਾ††愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥㰊楤⁶摩∽扴慟≤挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺氯祬潧挮浯氯⽹灴楓整椯慭敧⽳牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽慍敫礠畯睯牦敥眠扥楳整漠牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正•㸯㰊愯‾ਊ搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ潤畣敭瑮眮楲整椨氢慥敤扲慯摲•湩氠捹獯慟祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝⼯潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ潤畣敭瑮眮楲整椨猢楬敤≲椠祬潣彳摡氠捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝⼯潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝⼼捳楲瑰‾ℼⴭ愠摤摥㜠㈯′ⴭਾ搼癩椠㵤䘢潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠㤳㤳㤳※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※楷瑤㩨〱┰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴栠楥桧㩴〹硰椡灭牯慴瑮㸢ਠ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢㰊牨晥∽瑨灴⼺愯瑤慲正洮湩獩整楲污⸵潣⽭汣捩湫睥㼯㵡㌶㌷㐹•楴汴㵥戢極摬礠畯睯敷獢瑩瑡吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫∠⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ搼癩椠㵤昢潯整䅲彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰㸢㰊晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ