Three groups of blueberries Vaccinium ssp. (Ericaceae) are important for commercial cultivation, all needing a very acid soil for cultivation. One or other produces fresh fruit throughout the summer into autumn. The first and now most important is the highbush, developed from Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium australe, two highly variable species, native to eastern North America. Both are deciduous shrubs growing to 12ft high, although the highbush blueberry in cultivation is maintained at about 3-5ft. The second is the rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei, with slightly smaller fruits, deciduous and growing wild in southern parts of the US to 30ft. Low bush blueberries, Vaccinium myrtilloides and Vaccinium angustifolium, are also native to the eastern US, growing to 6-18in. tall, with the smallest fruits and spreading by underground shoots. Blueberries were collected from the wild for many years before being cultivated commercially: even today lowbush blueberries are chiefly picked from managed wild populations, accounting for two-thirds of the blueberry land in North America.
Lowbush blueberries were the first to be cultivated (or managed) in the 19th century; they are now seldom grown. Rabbiteye blueberries were commonly cultivated in Florida at the end of that century, and there were also some commercial plantations of highbush blueberries in the northern states at about that time; rabbiteye blueberries are much more productive, being both heat and drought-resistant when these conditions prevail. The real stimulus to highbush growing came early in the 20th century when a breeding programme was started by the US Department of Agriculture, under Dr. Frederick Coville. Based on interspecific hybridisation, the first cultivars were introduced in the 1920’s, and a second group was introduced in the 1960’s. These form the basis of the successful industry of today. The largest area of cultivation is North America, where highbush blueberries account for more than two-thirds of production. Highbush blueberries have also been grown successfully in Europe, Israel and Japan, and more recently in Australia and New Zealand for marketing out of the northern season. The main breeding programme is being undertaken in North America, to produce cultivars with more resistance to diseases and to winter injury, for mechanical harvesting, and with a longer fruiting season. New cultivars have also been introduced in Germany and in Australia, selected for local conditions. New low-growing, very hardy cultivars (‘half-high’) have been bred in Minnesota, so extending the area of cultivation into regions where they will survive temperatures of -34ºC or lower under snow cover. Recently, tetraploid cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry have been introduced; this species is more tolerant of heat and drought than the other types, and also has a lower chill requirement, so can be grown in the southern states.
Most of the fruit goes to the fresh market, but there is also a quantity used for processing. Blueberries produce scented flowers in spring and most cultivars show highly coloured foliage before leaf-fall, an extra advantage in the garden.
Highbush blueberries have a minimum cold requirement of 800 hours below 7.2ºC, which limits potential cultivation to climates with cold winters. Rabbiteye blueberries need less than half of this, depending on the cultivar, so can be grown in warmer climates (e.g. Florida). Lowbush blueberries are, in general, the hardiest and rabbiteye the least hardy. In the highbush blueberry, susceptibility to low temperature injury varies with the cultivar and degree of hardening, being most resistant a month after mid-winter (January) and less so towards spring. The more developed the flowers, the more vulnerable they are to frost.
Sites for blueberries need good air circulation to allow frosty air to drain away easily, but shelter from strong winds is also required. Good light is essential, as flower buds initiation and wood ripening are better with high light intensity. Well aerated, well drained, acid soils, high in organic matter (11.5%) are ideal for blueberries; sandy-loamy soils are used for commercial crops. Optimum soil pH is 4.3-4.8, but 4.0-5.5 is tolerable.
Highbush blueberries are self-fertile and a single cultivar will fruit if grown on its own, although growing two cultivars will improve yields. A relatively high fruit set (80%) is needed to give a good commercial crop, so bee colonies are commonly introduced at flowering. Bumble bees are the best pollinators. Lowbush blueberries usually set fewer fruits and introduced bees are essential at flowering. Rabbiteye blueberries are self-fertile and must be interplanted with another cultivar.
Bushes of two or three years old are planted (certified ‘disease free’ stock is available in North America). In the UK, three-year-olds are preferred as there may be a high loss among two-year-old plants. Plant after leaf-fall in autumn or early winter to allow them to become established before winter; in very cold climates, early spring planting is more usual. Spacing in gardens for highbush blueberries is 1.5m each way; commercially highbush blueberries are grown 1.2-1.5m apart between the rows. Rabbiteye blueberries are planted at 1.5-1.8m. Lowbush blueberries are grown as groundcover.
It is advisable to test the soil pH regularly, as signs of nutrient deficiencies will soon appear on soil that has become too alkaline. Highbush blueberries respond to nitrogen feeding, depending on soil type, but in gardens good results have been obtained by applying a base fertiliser (2:2:1 superphosphate/hoof and horn/sulphate of potash) at 15g/m² in early spring, followed by sulphate of ammonia at 15g/m² a month later. Some commercial growers apply a complete fertiliser, others give sulphate of ammonia or urea: rates of nitrogen recommended are 35-140kg/ha, according to local conditions.
Blueberries are surface rooting, so any cultivation must be shallow. Mulching is generally recommended for blueberries in gardens and helps to maintain the high content of organic matter in the soil, as well as conserving soil moisture. Granulated bark or composted softwood sawdust are among the most suitable materials, applied initially as a thick layer (10-15cm) and renewed annually to a depth of 2.5cm. Mulching and clean cultivation, with or without a grass strip between the rows, are common commercial soil-management practices.
Highbush blueberries need about 2.5cm of rain per week during the growing season, more when fruits are developing. Both trickle and overhead irrigation are used commercially to make up any shortfall. Lime-free water (rainwater) must be used. Rabbiteye is more tolerant of dry conditions than the highbush. Regular mulching will help to control weed growth in gardens; herbicides are widely used for weed control in the US, although their use is complicated by the need to maintain a high soil content of organic matter.
Pruning is light in the first 2-3 years after planting, only removing broken or damaged shoots and also any flower buds that may form. The best fruiting wood is on two-year-old and three-year-old shoots, so pruning is aimed at encouraging a good supply of young shoots. Highbush blueberries are grown as stooled bushes with several shoots arising from soil level and, once annual pruning is started, from the third or fourth year, about one in four of these shoots is cut out completely. New shoots are produced from the basal buds remaining. Lowbush blueberries are not pruned by cutting, but are burnt over at intervals to rejuvenate the plants; this is usually done every two or three years when the soil is flooded or frozen. Rabbiteye blueberries need little pruning to stimulate growth but it is used to keep bushes at a height just below 3m. Fruit on bushes taller than this is difficult to harvest by machine. Late summer pruning to remove shoots above 90cm completely or to 5cm has not reduced subsequent yields.
Fruits of highbush blueberry are blue/black, about 2cm in diameter, covered with a white bloom. They are not fully ripe until a week after they have turned blue, and therefore need selective harvesting. When picked by hand, fruits are rolled between thumb and forefinger to separate them from the stem. The first-ripened fruits are largest, and the commercial crop from the first two pickings is sent to the fresh market. Over-the-row machines may be used for the subsequent picks, and these fruits are likely to be sent for processing, for which quality is less important; losses of up to 30% fruit are frequent with mechanical harvesting, which is also likely to cause damage to the bushes. In the garden, the problem of birds eating the ripening fruits is considerable and the only satisfactory control is to net the bushes before the fruits start to ripen. Fruits of lowbush blueberries usually go for processing; they are raked off the plants with a handheld tool or by machine.
Highbush blueberries are usually increased by softwood cuttings. Lateral shoots 10cm long plus heel are taken from one-year-old shoots are midsummer. All leaves except the top two or three are removed and the cuttings inserted in a firm, sandy mixture, at 20ºC. Cuttings should root in about four weeks. Rabbiteye blueberries are also usually propagated by softwood cuttings but hardwood cuttings are sometimes used. Hardwood cuttings are also used for highbush blueberries; particularly in North America, and it is known that shoots thicker than 5mm root better than thinner shoots. Shoots of 10-15cm long are taken from dormant bushes; they may be taken in early winter and stored in polythene bags at -1ºC to +1ºC for four months to avoid any risk of winter damage in the fields. Tissue culture has also been used for highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, but both types are slow to proliferate and the technique is not economic on a large scale. Lowbush blueberries are usually propagated by rhizome cuttings.
In gardens with a spoil pH that is too high for highbush blueberries, plants can be grown in wide-diameter containers of at least 60cm deep or, on a larger scale, in specially made beds lined with heavy grade polythene sheeting. The ideal planting mixture is acidic and sandy with a light organic content; water with rainwater. Plants in these conditions will need fertiliser, in the form of nitrogen, from the start of growth in spring, plus a high potash feed given every ten days from the start of flowering until fruits start to ripen. Other cultural techniques are the same. ‘Bluetta’ is a good cultivar for open garden and container growing.
The following cultivars are recommended. Seasons cited are for North America; they will be later in northern Europe. Highbush. Early: ‘Bluetta’, ‘Collins’, ‘Earliblue’, ‘Patriot’, ‘Sharpblue’, (for warmer regions). Early/midseason: ‘North Country’, ‘North Sky’, ‘Northblue’, ‘Northland’ (all very cold-resistant). Midseason: ‘Berkeley’, ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Bluejay’, ‘Blueray’, ‘Herbert’, ‘Ivanhoe’. Late: ‘Coville’, ‘Elliot’, ‘Jersey’. Lowbush: ‘Putte’. Rabbiteye. Early/midseason: ‘Brightwell’, ‘Premier’, ‘Tifblue’, ‘Woodard’. Midseason: ‘Briteblue’, ‘Climax’, ‘Delite’.
Other tasty berries you might like to try and cultivate are Bilberries, Blaeberries, Huckleberries, Whinberries and Whortleberries. Since they are of the same genus as Blueberries (Vaccinium) they are also featured on this website, in the section about Cranberries.
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椡噳⤠ †笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹ †笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⡦摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡††††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†††† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴††††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴††††††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ 瘊牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰ਊ晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笊 †爠瑥牵牴敵晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴紊攊獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笊 †眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤䘢潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †ਠਊ†† †⼠ 佄⁍湉摁 †⠠畦据楴湯椨味敲汬硩††††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸ਊ††††慶獩求歯摥祂潄慭湩㴠映湵瑣潩⡮栠敲††††††††††慶汢捯敫䑤浯楡獮㴠嬠 †††††††∠湡湡慹潰湲㌱〰⸰牴灩摯挮浯Ⱒ †††††††∠硸灸牯确硸琮楲潰潣≭ †††††崠††††††慶汦条㴠映污敳†††††† †††††映牯 慶㵩㬰椠戼潬正摥潄慭湩敬杮桴※⭩††††††††††††††晩 牨晥献慥捲⡨戠潬正摥潄慭湩孳椠崠⤠㸠‽‰††††††††††††††††††汦条㴠琠畲㭥 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵汦条†††† †††瘠牡朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⁴‽畦据楴湯 敭慴慎敭⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡洠瑥獡㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敭慴⤧††††††潦椨〽※㱩敭慴敬杮桴※⭩⤫ †††††笠ਠ††††††††晩 敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥渢浡≥ 㴽洠瑥乡浡††††††††⁻ †††††††††爠瑥牵敭慴孳嵩朮瑥瑁牴扩瑵⡥挢湯整瑮⤢※ †††††††素ਠ††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳†††††††† †††瘠牡朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥㴠映湵瑣潩⡮敲敧偸瑡整湲††††††††††慶潮敤‽絻††††††慶潮敤䅳㴠嬠㭝 †††††瘠牡瀠敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩⁴‽❛❡挧Ⱗ✠❢㭝 †††ਠ††††††昨湵瑣潩敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨慰瑴牥⥮ †††††笠 †††††††椠渨栮獡桃汩乤摯獥⤨††††††††††††††††††晩⠠慴乧浡㴽‽䤧剆䵁❅††††††††††††††††††††††敲畴湲映污敳††††††††††††††††††††潦瘨牡椠㴠〠※‼档汩乤摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††††††††††††††晩⠠渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯呥灹㴽‽⤸☠…瀨瑡整湲琮獥⡴档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤慖畬⥥⤩ †††††††††††笠 †††††††††††††瘠牡愠敲乡浡‽慰瑴牥硥捥渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩渮摯噥污敵嬩崱††††††††††††††潮敤孳牡慥慎敭⁝‽㭮 †††††††††††素 †††††††††††攠獬晩⠠档汩乤摯獥楛潮敤祔数㴠㴽ㄠ††††††††††††††††††††††††††敧乴摯獥桔瑡慈敶潃浭湥獴渨挮楨摬潎敤孳嵩慰瑴牥⥮††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††⡽潤畣敭瑮戮摯ⱹ爠来硥慐瑴牥⥮㬩ਊ††††††潦瘨牡椠椠牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳††††††††††††††晩⠠潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝††††††††††††††††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨潮敤孳牰晥牥敲乤摯獥楌瑳楛嵝瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤瀮牡湥乴摯慰敲瑮潎敤㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††††攠獬††††††††††††††††††††††潮敤䅳瀮獵⡨渠摯獥灛敲敦牲摥潎敤䱳獩孴嵩⁝㬩 †††††††††素 †††††††素 †††††素 †††††爠瑥牵潮敤䅳†††††††† †††ਠ††††慶牰灯牥潎敤㴠渠汵㭬 †††瘠牡愠敲乡摯獥㴠朠瑥潃浭湥乴摯獥 敮⁷敒䕧灸 帧牡慥吠灹㵥愢敲彡尨睜⤫✢⤠⤠ †††映牯⠠慶‽㬰椠㰠愠敲乡摯獥氮湥瑧㭨椠⬫††††††††††慶‽慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥牡慥潎敤孳嵩⸩楷瑤⥨††††††晩⠠愨㸠‽〳⤰☠…愨㰠‽〴⤰††††††††††††††牰灯牥潎敤㴠愠敲乡摯獥楛㭝 †††††††戠敲歡††††††††††ਊ††††慶牰灯牥祴慎敭㴠朠瑥敍慴潃瑮湥⡴瀢潲数瑲≹ 籼映污敳††††晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦⠠牰灯牥潎敤 ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††牰灯牥潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥ⱥ瀠潲数乲摯楦獲䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 獩牔汥楬⁸☦℠ 牰灯牥潎敤⤠⤠⼠ 汓灡琠敨愠癥湥桴畯桧⁴桴牥獩渠污捯瑡摥猠潬ੴ††††††††††牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬††††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠潮敮㬧 †††††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤攠⤠††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †††攠獬晩 椡䉳潬敫䉤䑹浯楡⡮氠捯瑡潩牨晥⤠⤠ †††笠 †††††瘠牡椠橮⁆‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††††湩䙪献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††††湩䙪献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††††湩䙪献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽渧湯❥††††††湩䙪献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††††椠橮⹆瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††††椠橮⹆牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬ †††††椠⡦戠☠… 椡味敲汬硩簠⁼ 祴数景椠味敲汬硩㴠‽產摮晥湩摥• ⼯䄠汬漠桴牥琠楲潰牰灯ੳ††††††††††††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 湩䙪⤠††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††††素ਠ†††††⡽搠捯浵湥獩牔汥楬⁸⤩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ搼癩椠㵤琢形潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺䙄䍄䙃※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㌣㌹㌹㬹瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹ℹ浩潰瑲湡≴ਾℼⴭ潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠㰊湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢㰊是牯㹭㰊瑳汹㹥昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶ਊ潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †映湯楳敺›㐱硰††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †眠摩桴›〱┰潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵ਊ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †琠灯›瀱㭸 †爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †漠慰楣祴›㬱 †戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦紊昊牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †挠汯牯›昣晦㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊捳楲瑰ਾ畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †ਠ††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †素攠獬†††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档ㄵ氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††瘊牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥瘊牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ敲畴湲映污敳紊㰊猯牣灩㸭㰊瑳汹㹥 †⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ搼癩椠㵤琢形摡•汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯摡牴捡業楮瑳牥慩㕬挮浯振楬正敮⽷愿㘽㜳㤳∴琠瑩敬∽畢汩潹牵漠湷眠扥楳整愠⁴牔灩摯挮浯•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯祬氮杹潣⽭祬琯印瑩⽥浩条獥是敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴䴢歡潹牵漠湷映敲敷獢瑩湯吠楲潰潣≭猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯≫⼠ਾ⼼㹡ਠ㰊楤⁶摩∽摡损湯慴湩牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㈷瀸⁸㸢㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…氢慥敤扲慯摲•湩氠捹獯慟⥤笠 搠捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝⼼捳楲瑰ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢椊琨灹潥祬潣彳摡℠㴽∠湵敤楦敮≤☠…猢楬敤≲椠祬潣彳摡 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